The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

The Trial of German Major War Criminals

Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany
July 16 to July 27, 1946

Concluding Speeches by Defence

  • Session 179, July 16, 1946 (Part 1 of 11)

    DONITZ (concluded):
    Treatment of neutrals-argument on declaration and extent of operational areas; The Athenia case.
    Treatment of shipwrecked : Exception from duty to rescue; Defendant's Laconia order of 17.9.42-its motivation and interpretation.
    Denial of defendant's participation in preparation of aggression argument against retroactive effect of joining a conspiracy after its inception (see Part 7).
    Commando order; Employment of concentration camp labour.

    RAEDER (see Part 4; Part 14) Appraisal of violations of Versailles Treaty and of their non-aggressive motives; of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement as condonation of previous treaty violations. Planning of aggression : Evaluation of Hitler speeches,

  • Session 180, July 17, 1946 (Part 1 of 6)

    The Athenia case.
    Aggressions; particularly against Norway - preventive character of the campaign; Commando order.
    Argument against conspiratorial responsibility of military leadership for political decisions on war.

    SCHIRACH (see Part 4; Part 14; Part 15).
    Defendant's youth education programme, his peaceful aims and...

  • Session 181, July 18, 1946 (Part 1 of 10)

    ...his methods; His attitude to Church and religion; Concentration camps; Jewish question.

    SAUCKEL (see Part 4; Part 6; Part 15).
    Argument on concept of slave labour and deportation; Employment of foreign labour - its admissibility under International Law.
    Execution of foreign labour utilization programme; Limitations of defendant's responsibility; His efforts for improvement of recruitment methods; of working and living conditions.

    JODL (see Part 4; Part 6; Part 15; Part 16)
    Argument against defendant's participation in a conspiracy, 123 ;

  • Session 182, July 19, 1946 (Part 1 of 12)

    His part in aggressions from 1938 to 1941.
    Division between political and military spheres and responsibilities-scope of defendant's position.
    Commando order; Partisan warfare; Scorched earth policy in Norway.
    Argument on actus and mens rea as elements of crime and on doctrine of superior orders.

    SEYSS-INQUART (see Part 4; Part 6; Part 16).
    Austria: her history and the Anschluss idea since World War I; Defendant's role; International recognition of Anschluss. The Netherlands: Encroachments on Dutch sovereignty and...

  • Session 183, July 22, 1946 (Part 1 of 11)

    ...administration; on economy; Independent position of police; Hostages; Deportations; Jewish question; Famine at the end of 1944.
    Arguments by counsel on documentary evidence for indicted organisations

    BORMANN (see Part 4; Part 17; Part 18)
    Argument on question of defendant's death; of his true influence.

    PAPEN (see Part 5; Part 16)
    Defendant's Chancellorship in 1932: his efforts for a compromise with Nazi Party and for restriction of its influence; Continuation of his policy during his Vice-Chancellorship under Hitler; Oppositionist Marburg speech and blood purge of 30.6.34.

  • Session 184, July 23, 1946 (Part 1 of 12)

    Austria: Defendant's appeasement policy and his activities as Ambassador Extraordinary in Vienna; Berchtesgaden conference of 12.2.38.
    Defendant's mission to Ankara.

    SPEER (see Part 6; Part 16; Part 17)

    Deportation of foreign workers for forced labour - its justification under International Law by a state of national emergency; Establishment of blocked industries; Delimitation of Sauckel's and Speer's spheres of responsibility.
    Employment of prisoners of war; of French civilians in the Todt Organization; of concentration camp labour.
    Defendant's counteractions against Hitler's destruction orders.

    NEURATH (see Part 5; Part 17; Part 18)
    Argument on individual responsibility of State officials and on concept of conspiracy.
    Defendant's personality and his attitude to National Socialism; The disarmament problem - defendant's struggle for...

  • Session 185, July 24, 1946 (Part 1 of 11)

    ...Germany's equality of rights; France's policy of encirclement and Germany's reactions.
    Austria : Defendant's role; Bohemia and Moravia: Defendant's appointment as Reich Protector; His repudiation of Germanization plans; His limited powers, in particular lack of control over police and its repressive measures; His resignation.
    Arguments by counsel on witnesses for indicted organizations.

    FRITZSCHE (see Part 5; Part 17)

    Limited scope of defendant's position in Propaganda Ministry; Propaganda warfare and International Law; Press campaigns before aggressive actions; Defendant's...

  • Session 186, July 25, 1946 (Part 1 of 9)

    ...attitude to Nazi doctrines.
    Argument on concept of principal and accessory.
    Tribunal's announcement of procedural rules for the trial of indicted organizations.

    HESS (see Part 6; Part 9; Part 10)
    Economic and political causes for Nazi rise to power.
    Austria; Czechoslovakia; The Polish question and the rapprochement between USSR and Germany.
    Argument against defendant's participation in a common plan; on concept of conspiracy; on group and individual criminality.
    Defendant's peace motives for his flight to England.

    Concluding Speeches by Prosecution

  • Session 187, July 26, 1946 (Part 1 of 12)

    Mr. Justice R. H. Jackson, for the United States of America:
    Outline of the main crimes of the Nazi regime; The Common Plan for preparation of aggression; The roles of the individual defendants.
    Argument against main defence pleas, particularly against denial of knowledge and influence.
    Sir Hartley Shawcross, for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    Nazis' domestic policy from 1933 to 1939, particularly persecution of Church and Jews.
    Crimes against Peace: Preparation and execution of aggressions; Aggressive war; Argument against Prof. Jahrreiss's defence speech (see Part 18).
    War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity; particularly Stalag Luft III case; Lynch law against "terror flyers",

  • Session 188, July 27, 1946 (Part 1 of 8)

    Commando order; "Night and Fog" order; Partisan warfare; Hostages; Ruthless conduct of naval war; Slave labour; Genocide, extermination of the Jews; "Mercy" killings; Concentration camps.
    Criminal responsibility of the individual defendants.

  • Appendix 1 of 3
  • Appendix 2 of 3
  • Appendix 3 of 3

    [ Index ]

    Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

    © The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

    This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

    As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.