The Nizkor Project

Shattered!
50 Years of Silence

History and Voices
of the Tragedy in Romania and Transnistria

Footnotes


  1. The Statesman's Yearbook, 1975-1976, St. Martin's Press, New York
  2. Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 4, p. 389
  3. Jewish: small towns with a majority of Jewish population
  4. Romanian: Uniunea Evreilor din Romania (the Union Of Romanian Jewry).
  5. Romanian: Comitetul Democrat Evreiesc (The Jewish Democratic Committee).
  6. The Silent Holocaust-Romania and its Jews., I. C. Butnaru, p. 174
  7. Ibid.
  8. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, VOL. XXIII, pgs. 219-226.
  9. Members of the Fascist Iron Guard.
  10. Matatias Carp, Cartea Neagra (The Black Book), P. 229-230
  11. Matatias Carp, Cartea Neagra, (The Black Book) p. 232
  12. Secret Intelligence Service (Rom. Serviciul Secret de Informatii)
  13. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, p. 118, 119
  14. Matatias Carp, Cartea Neagra, p.69
  15. The Silent Holocaust-Romania and its Jews., I. C. Butnaru, p. 89
  16. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, p.254
  17. Hebrew: Day of Atonement, the most solemn holiday of the Jewish Year.
  18. Dora Litani, Transnistria, p.80
  19. Dora Litani, Transnistria, p.50
  20. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, Vol. XXIII, p. 243-244
  21. Martin Gilbert, Atlas of the Holocaust, p.102
  22. Dora Litani, Transnistria, p. 42 to 44
  23. Russian: acronym for People's Commission for Internal Affairs.
  24. Sir Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust, The Jewish Tragedy, p. 218
  25. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, VOL. XXIII, p. 255
  26. Ibid., p. 256
  27. Ibid., p. 256
  28. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, VOL. XXIII, p. 258
  29. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, VOL. XXIII p. 256
  30. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, VOL. XXIII, p. 256-260
  31. Dora Litani, Transnistria, p. 72-73.
  32. Dora Litani, Transnistria, p. 66
  33. The Chmielnicki massacres of 1648-1649 where over 100,000 Jews were killed, the pogroms of 1881-1882, and the Petlyura pogroms of 1919-1920.
  34. Dora Litani, Transnistria, p. 31, 33
  35. Joint Distribution Committee
  36. Women's International Zionist Organization
  37. Exchange rate was then 143 lei to one US dollar.
  38. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, p. 273-275
  39. Belzec was one of the largest annihilation camps in Poland.
  40. Matatias Carp, Cartea Neagra, vol. 3, p. 307
  41. Ibid.
  42. Hebrew: Zionist Youth Camps, which prepared the young Halutzim to work the land in Israel.
  43. The Canadian Jewish News, March 14, 1996.
  44. Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews 1933-1945, p 381
  45. Ibid., p. 382-383.
  46. Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945, p. 382
  47. The Jewish organization for assistance to legal and illegal immigrants.
  48. Hebrew - flight, escape. An organization assisting survivors to reach the coast from where they could embark for Palestine. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust 1990.
  49. Dr. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, p. 275-278.
  50. I. C. Butnaru, The Silent Holocaust - Romania and its Jews, p. 168
  51. Baruh Cohen, The International Herald Tribune, April 5, 1995, letter to the editor titled "A Threat in Romania."
  52. Adevarul [The Truth, Romanian Newspaper], Saturday, May 10, 1997.
  53. The Globe and Mail, Toronto, August 2, 1997.
  54. Faptu Divers (The Varied Factor), Romanian weekly, August 2, 2000
  55. Jean Ancel, Antonescu and the Jews, Yad Vashem Studies, vol. XXIII, Jerusalem, 1993, p. 233.
  56. Dr. Leon Volovici, Anti-Semitism in Post-Communist Eastern Europe: A Marginal or Central Issue?
  57. Ibid.


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