The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Fifty-Sixth Day: Monday,11th February, 1946
(Part 5 of 14)


The O.K.W., the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, and the Gestapo were interwoven into one sole entity. This is also borne out by the next document.

General Nedic, ex-Prime Minister of the Quisling Yugoslav Government, in his depositions gives some interesting information on this question.

Before reading into the record a few excerpts from his depositions, I must say a few words concerning four Germans, whom Nedic mentions by name. He speaks of Kraus, Turner, Kiesel, and Kronholz.

Dr. Kraus was chief of the Gestapo "South-east," with central offices in Belgrade. Dr. Turner was chief of staff of the civil administration department attached to the German Military Command in Serbia. Dr. Kiesel was Dr. Turner's deputy. Kronholz held no official post. He had lived in Yugoslavia even before the war and was director of the German transport firm "Schenker AG." (Schenker Aktiongesellschaft). Subsequently he turned out to be an important German intelligence agent. This information is certified by the Yugoslav Extraordinary Commission for the Investigation of German Atrocities (Exhibit USSR 331).

After this explanation, I shall read into the record a short excerpt from the evidence of the Serbian Quisling, General Nedic. A true copy of the interrogation, or rather excerpts from his minutes, are submitted as Exhibit USSR 288. I am able to submit to you now, for your perusal, the original of these minutes with Nedic's signature. Unfortunately I am not in a position to leave it with you in its entirety because it refers to a case concerning Yugoslavia which has not yet been finished, but I can hand it to you for perusal by the Tribunal, while the certified excerpts remain with us as evidence.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Pokrovsky, the Tribunal understand that you wish to put this document in as evidence and then to withdraw it for the purpose of its being used in some other cases; is that right?

COL. POKROVSKY: I should like to submit to you as evidence in this case the excerpts from the minutes, duly certified by the Yugoslav Extraordinary Commission, in order that the minutes now in your hands, i.e., the original minutes -- may be returned to Belgrade where they will be presented as a document needed in another case which is still under investigation. I would, therefore, request you to keep a copy for the Tribunal after you have satisfied yourselves that this copy tallies with the original.

THE PRESIDENT: Well then, if that is so, we must ask you to deposit with this Tribunal a photostatic copy of this document, because, of course, all the documents or photostatic copies which are put in evidence must de deposited with the General Secretary of this Tribunal. So, if you will undertake to have a photostatic copy made of this document and left with the General Secretary, I think the Tribunal is agreed that you may do so, that you may use this document.

COL. POKROVSKY: Will the Tribunal be satisfied with the certified photostatic copy, in addition to the certified excerpts and a photostatic copy of the part which I am about to quote?

[Page 232]

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, certainly.

COL. POKROVSKY: Thank you.

"I came to know Kronholz during the occupation period, before I became Prime Minister. As far as I can remember he was brought to me by the Chief of the Gestapo, Dr. Kraus... Then Kronholz insisted that I should accept the proposed post. Turner received me in the presence of Dr. Kiesel and said that he authorised me, through General Dankelmann, the German military commander in Serbia, to form an authoritarian Government."
I omit a few sentences.
"Almost simultaneously with the creation of my Government, the Germans established contact with a group of Chetniks under the command of Petschanaz, who had until then been hiding in the forests. The contact was also established through the Chief of the Gestapo, Dr. Kraus. Shortly after this, Petschanaz arrived in Belgrade, called to see me, and offered his services. That is how my Government came to form its first armed units."
A little farther on, in the same minutes, we find the following record of Nedic's testimonies:
"As soon as the formation of my Government had been proclaimed at the beginning of September, 1941, a delegation with authority from Drazha Michailovic called on me to start negotiations."
Nedic enumerates the terms, which are of no interest to us, and then says:
"I, for my part, accepted all these terms and offers. Drazha received money and the Germans permitted this."
This is the end of the quotation.

Still another part of this record seems of importance to me; it concerns Nedic's visit to Hitler and the defendant Ribbentrop. Nedic stated:

"I noticed that at the meeting with the defendant Ribbentrop, a demand was made that I should place all the spiritual and material resources of Serbia at the disposal of the German Reich for the prosecution of the war."
Speaking of this meeting with Hitler, Nedic stated:
"He shouted at me, emphasising that the order concerning one hundred for one was too lenient; that it should have been increased to one thousand for one. He added also that he was prepared to exterminate the entire population if the Serbians continued to act like rebels."
The head of Fascist Germany wished to control the Slav countries as if they were his own patrimony. Here he was gladly helped by generals, diplomats, industrialists and intelligence officers. All the acts of aggression were prepared and realized with their direct participation.

I repeat: The German generals as a body were not merely an obedient tool in Hitler's hands. The defendants Keitel, Jodl and Goering personally participated in the planning, preparation and realisation of crimes against peoples and States.

Document 1195-PS adds yet another proof in the establishment of this fact. The above named defendants, together with Neurath, Frick, Schirach, Frank, Seyss-Inquart and Ribbentrop, are directly guilty of the very grave crimes which I have enumerated to the Tribunal.

National Socialism cannot be separated from the idea of war. This is acknowledged by the Hitlerites themselves.

In other words, Hitlerism and aggressive war are one and the same thing.

[Page 233]

And if wars are not always planned by military leaders only, it is always they who conduct them. The responsibility for aggression, for aggressive war, for the death of millions, for atrocities, for the destruction of cultural treasures and material wealth, must be borne by all the major war criminals now sitting in the dock.

THE PRESIDENT: We will adjourn now.

(A recess was taken.)

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