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 Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Volume One, Chapter Twelve


Simultaneously with the passage of these decrees and their
execution, still another weapon was wielded by the Party and
the party-controlled state. This was the openly sponsored
and official anti-Jewish boycotts. The published diary of
Joseph Goebbels, at page 290, contains this entry for 29
March 1933:

"The boycott appeal is approved by the entire cabinet."

Again, on 31 March 1933, he wrote:

     "We are having a last discussion among a very small
     circle and decide that the boycott is to start tomorrow
     with all severity." (2409-PS)

Streicher and Frank, together with Himmler, Ley, and others,
were members of a central committee who conducted the 1933
boycott against the Jews. Their names are listed in National
Socialist Party correspondence for 29 March 1933. (2156-PS)

In this early 1933 violence against the Jews, raids were
conducted on synagogues by uniformed Nazis. Attending
members of the synagogues were assaulted, and- religious
insignia and emblems were desecrated. A report of such an
occurrence was contained in an official dispatch from the
American Consul General in Leipzig, dated 5 April 1943,
which stated:

     "In Dresden several weeks ago uniformed- Nazis raided
     the Jewish prayer house, interrupted the evening
     religious service, arrested 25 worshippers, and tore
     the holy insignia or emblems from their headcovering
     worn while praying." (2709-PS)

At a meeting in Nurnberg, before the representatives of the
German press, Streicher and Mayor Liebel of Nurnberg
revealed in advance to the gathered members of the press
that the Nurnberg synagogue was to be destroyed. The minutes
of this meeting, dated 4 August 1938, read as follows:

     "The breaking up of the synagogue (information must
     still be secret)
     "On 10 August, 1938 at 10 o'clock a.m., the breakup of
                                                  [Page 983]
     synagogues will commence. Gauleiter Julius Streicher
     will personally set the crane into motion with which
     the Jewish symbols, Star of David, etc., will be torn
     down. This should be arranged in a big way. Closer
     details are still unknown." (1724-PS)
Streicher himself supervised the demolition, according to a
newspaper account of 11 August 1938, which described the

     "In Nurnberg the Synagogue is being demolished; Julius
     Streicher himself inaugurates the work by a speech
     lasting more than an hour and a half. By his order then
     -- so to speak as a prelude of the demolition -- the
     tremendous Star of David came off the cupola." (2711-

These accounts of violence were not localized anti-Semitic
demonstrations, but were directed and ordered from a
centralized headquarters in Berlin. This fact is established
by a series of teletype messages sent by the Berlin Secret
State Police Headquarters to police chiefs throughout
Germany on 10 November 1938, which contained instructions
pertaining to the prearranged demonstration (3051-PS). One
of these confidential orders, signed by Heydrich, provides:

"Because of the attempt on the life of the Secretary of the
Legation von Rath in Paris tonight, 9 November 1938-10
November 1938, demonstrations against Jews are to be
expected throughout the Reich. The following instructions
are given on how to treat these events:

     "1. The Chiefs of the State Police, or their deputies,
     must get in telephonic contact with the political
     leaders who have jurisdiction over their districts and
     have to arrange a joint meeting with the appropriate
     inspector or commander of the Order Police to discuss
     the organization of the demonstrations. At these
     discussions the political leaders have to be informed
     that the German police has received from the
     Reichsfuehrer SS and Chief of the German Police the
     following instructions, in accordance with which the
     political leaders should adjust their own measures.
     "a. Only such measures should be taken which do not
     involve danger to German life or property. (For
     instance synagogues are to be burned down only when
     there is no danger of fire to the surroundings.)
     "b. Business and private apartments of Jews may be
     destroyed but not looted. The police is instructed to
     supervise the execution of this order and to arrest
     looters." (3051-PS)

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