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   Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Volume One, Chapter Ten
                                                  [Page 909]

The primary purpose of the slave labor program was to compel
the people of the occupied countries to work for the German
war economy. The decree appointing Sauckel Plenipotentiary-
General for Manpower declares the purpose of the appointment
to be to facilitate acquisition of the manpower required for
German war industries, and in particular the armaments
industry, by centralizing under Sauckel responsibility for
the recruitment and allocation of foreign labor and
prisoners of war in these industries (1666-PS). This decree,
signed by Hitler, Lammers and Keitel, and dated 21 March
1942, provides:

     "In order to secure the manpower requisite for the war
     industries as a whole, and particularly for armaments,
     it is necessary that the utilization of all available
     manpower, including that of workers recruited
     (angeworbenen) abroad and of prisoners of war, should
     be subject to a uniform control, directed in a manner
     appropriate to the requirements of war industry, and
     further that all still incompletely utilized manpower
     in the Greater German Reich, including the
     Protectorate, and in the General Government and in the
     occupied territories should be mobilized.
     "Reichsstatthalter and Gauleiter Fritz Sauckel will
     carry out this task within the framework of the Four
     Year Plan, as Plenipotentiary General, for the
     utilization of labor. In that capacity he will be
     directly responsible to the Commissioner for the Four
     Year Plan.
     "Section III (Wages) and Section V (Utilization of
     labor) of the Reich Labor Ministry, together with their
     subordinate authorities, will be placed at the disposal
     of the Plenipotentiary General for the accomplishment
     of his task." (1666-PS)

Sauckel's success can be gauged from a letter he wrote to
Hitler on 15 April 1943, containing a report on one year's
activities: "1. After one year's activity as Plenipotentiary
for the Direction of Labor, I can report that 3,638,056 new
foreign workers were given to the German war economy from 1
April of last year to 31 March this year.

"2. The 3,638,056 are distributed amongst the following
branches of the German war economy

Armament -- 1,568,801." (407-VI-PS)

                                                  [Page 910]
Further evidence of this use of enslaved foreign labor is
found in a report of a meeting of the Central Planning Board
on 16 February   1944, during which Field Marshal Milch

     "The armament industry employs foreign workmen to a
     large extent; according to the latest figures 40
     percent." (R-124)

Moreover, according to tabulations of Speer's Ministry, as
of 11 February 1944 approximately two million civilian
foreign workers were employed directly in the manufacture of
armaments and munitions (end products or components). (2520-

Sauckel, Speer, and Keitel also succeeded in forcing foreign
labor to construct military fortifications. Thus, citizens
of France, Holland, and Belgium were compelled against their
will to engage in the construction of the "Atlantic Wall".
Hitler, in an order dated 8 September 1942, initialed by
Keitel, decreed that:

     "The extensive coastal fortifications which I have
     ordered to be erected in the area of Army Group West
     make it necessary that in the occupied territory all
     available workers should be committed and should give
     the fullest extent of their productive capacities. The
     previous allotment of domestic workers is insufficient.
     In order to increase it, I order the introduction of
     compulsory labor and the prohibition of changing the
     place of employment without permission of the
     authorities in the occupied territories. Furthermore,
     the distribution of food and clothing ration cards to
     those subject to labor draft should in the future
     depend on the possession of a certificate of
     employment. Refusal to accept an assigned job, as well
     as abandoning the place of work without the consent of
     the authorities in charge, will result in the
     withdrawal of the food and clothing ration cards. The
     GBA (Deputy General for Arbeitseinsatz) in agreement
     with the military commander as well as the Reich
     Commissar, will issue the corresponding decrees for
     execution." (556-2-PS)

Sauckel boasted to Hitler concerning the contribution of the
forced labor program to the construction of the Atlantic
Wall by Speer's Organization Todt (OT). In a letter to
Hitler dated 17 May 1943, Sauckel wrote:

     "*** In addition to the labor allotted to the total
     German economy by the Arbeitseinsatz since I took
     office, the Organization Todt was supplied with new
     labor continually. ***
     "Thus, the Arbeitseinsatz has done everything to help
     make possible the completion of the Atlantic Wall."

Similarly, Russian civilians were forced into labor

                                                  [Page 911]
and compelled to build fortifications to be used against
their own countrymen. A memorandum of the Rosenberg Ministry
states that:

     "*** men and women in the theaters of operations have
     been and will be conscripted into labor battalions to
     be used in the construction of fortifications ***."

In addition, the Nazi conspirators compelled Prisoners of
War to engage in operations of war against their own country
and its Allies. At a meeting of the Central Planning Board
held on 19 February 1943, attended by Speer, Sauckel, and
Field Marshal Milch, the following conversation occurred:

     "Sauckel: If any prisoners are taken, there, they will
     be needed.
     "Milch: We have made a request for an order that a
     certain percentage of men in the antiaircraft artillery
     must be Russians. 50,000 will be taken altogether;
     30,000 are already employed as gunners. This is an
     amusing thing that Russians must work the guns." (R-

(At this point a series of official German Army photographs
were offered in evidence. The first one shows Russian
Prisoners of War acting as ammunition bearers during the
attack upon Tschudowo. The second group consists of a series
of official German Army photographs taken in July and August
1941 showing Russian prisoners of war in Latvia and the
Ukraine being compelled to load and unload ammunition trains
and trucks and being required to stack ammunition.)

This use of prisoners of war was in flagrant disregard of
the rules of international law, particularly Article 6 of
the Regulations annexed to Hague Convention Number 4 of
1907, which provides that the tasks of prisoners of war
shall have no connection with the operations of war.

The Nazi conspirators made extensive use of prisoners of war
not only in active operations of war but also in the German
armament industry. A secret letter from the Reichsminister
of Labor to the Presidents of the Regional Labor Exchange
Offices refers to an order of Goering to the effect that:

     "Upon personal order of the Reich Marshal, 100,000 men
     are to be taken from among the French PWs not yet
     employed in armament industry, and are to be assigned
     to the armament industry (airplanes industry). Gaps in
     manpower supply resulting therefrom will be filled by
     Soviet PWs. The transfer of the above-named French PWs
     is to be accomplished by 1 October." (3005-PS)

A similar policy was followed with respect to Russian prison-

                                                  [Page 912]
ers of war. In a secret memorandum issued from Hitler's
headquarters on 31 October 1942, Keitel directed the
execution of Hitler's order to use such prisoners in the
German war economy (EC-194):

     "The lack of workers is becoming an increasingly
     dangerous hindrance for the future German war and'
     armament industry. The expected relief through
     discharges from the armed forces is uncertain as o the
     extent and date; however, its possible extent will by
     no means correspond to expectations and requirements in
     view of the great demand.
     "The Fuehrer has now ordered that even the working
     power of the Russian prisoner of war should be utilized
     to a large extent by large scale assignment for the
     requirements of the war industry. The prerequisite for
     production is adequate nourishment. Also very small
     wages are to be planned for the most modest supply with
     a few consumers' goods (Genussmittel) for every day's
     life, eventual rewards for production."
     "II. Construction and Armament Industry.
     "a. Work units for constructions of all kind,
     particularly for the fortification of coastal defenses
     (concrete workers, unloading units for essential war
     "b. Suitable armament factories which have to be
     selected in such a way that their personnel should
     consist in the majority of prisoners of war under
     guidance and supervision (eventually after withdrawal
     and other employment of the German workers).
     "III. Other War Industries. "a. Mining as under II b.
     "b. Railroad construction units for building tracks
     "c. Agriculture and forestry in closed units. The
     utilization of Russian prisoners of war is to be
     regulated on the basis of above examples by:
     "To I. The armed forces
     "To II. The Reich Minister for Arms and Ammunition and
     the Inspector General for the German road system in
     agreement with the Reich Minister for Labor and Supreme
     Commander of the Armed Forces (Wi Rue Amt). Deputies of
     the Reich Minister for Arms and Ammunition are to be
     admitted to the prisoner of war camps to assist in the
     selection of skilled workers." (EC-194)

Goering, at a conference at the Air Ministry on 7 November
1941, also discussed the use of prisoners of war in the

                                                  [Page 913]
industry. The Top Secret notes on Goering's-instructions as
to the employment and treatment of prisoners of war in many
phases of the German war industry read as follows (106-PS):

     "The Fuehrer's point of view as to employment of
     prisoners of war in war industries has changed
     basically. So far a total of 6 million prisoners of war
     employed so far 2 million."
     "For 4) In the Interior and the Protectorate, it would
     be ideal if entire factories could be manned by Russian
     PW's except the employees necessary for direction. For
     employment in the Interior and the Protectorate the
     following are to have priority:
     "a. At the top coal mining industry.
     "Order by the Fuehrer to investigate all mines as to
     suitability for employment of Russians. At times
     manning the entire plant with Russian laborers.
     "b. Transportation (construction of locomotives and
     cars, repair shops).
     "Railroad-repair and industry workers are to be sought
     out from the PW's. Railroad is most important means of
     transportation in the East.
     "c. Armament industries
     "Preferably factories of armor and guns. Possibly also
     construction of parts for airplane engines. Suitable
     complete sections of factories to be manned exclusively
     by Russians. For the remainder employment in columns.
     Use in factories of tool machinery, production of farm
     tractors, generators, etc. In emergency, erect in
     individual places barracks for occasional workers which
     are used as unloading details and similar purposes.
     (Reich Minister of the Interior through communal
     "OKW/AWA is competent for transporting Russian PW's
     employment through "Planning Board for Employment of
     all PW's (Planstelle fuer den Einsatz fuer alle
     Kriegsgefangenen). If necessary, offices of Reich
     "No employment where danger to men or their supply
     exists, i.e. factories exposed to explosives,
     waterworks, power-works, etc. No contact with German
     population, especially no 'solidarity.' German worker
     as a rule is foreman of Russians. "Food is a matter of
     the Four Years' Plan. Supply their own food (cats,
     horses, etc.)
     "Clothes, billeting, messing somewhat better than at
     home where part of the people live in caverns.
                                                  [Page 914]
     "Supply of shoes for Russians as a rule wooden shoes,
     if necessary install Russian shoe repair shops.
     "Examination of physical fitness, in order to avoid
     importation of diseases.
     "Clearing of mines as a rule by Russians if possible by
     selected Russian engineers." (1206-PS)

Speer also sponsored and applied the policy of using
prisoners of war in the armament industry. In a speech to
the Nazi Gauleiters on 24 February 1942, Speer said:

     "I therefore proposed to the Fuehrer at the end of
     December that all my labor force, including specialists
     be released for mass employment in the East.
     Subsequently the remaining PW's, about 10,000 were put
     at disposal of the armaments industry by me." (1435-PS)
     Speer also reported at the 36th meeting of the Central
     Planning Board, held on 22 April 1943, that only 3070
     of the Russian prisoners of war were engaged in the
     armament industry. This he found unsatisfactory. Speer
     "There is a specified statement showing in what sectors
     the Russian PW's have been distributed, and this
     statement is quite interesting. It shows that the
     armaments industry only received 30. I always
     complained about this."
     "The 90,000 Russian PW's employed in the whole of the
     armaments industry are for the greatest part skilled
     men." (R-124)

Sauckel, who was appointed Plenipotentiary General for the
utilization of labor for the express purpose, among others,
of integrating prisoners of war into the German war
industry, made it plain that prisoners of war were to be
compelled to serve the German armament industry. His labor
mobilization program contains the following statement:

     "All prisoners of war, from the territories of the West as
     well as of the East, actually in Germany, must be completely
     incorporated into the German armament and nutrition
     industries. Their production must be brought to the highest
     possible level." (016-PS)

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