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Shofar FTP Archive File: camps/aktion.reinhard/yvs16.09

Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: Yad Vashem Studies XVI:  Operation Reinhard (9/11)
Summary: The Construction of Larger Gas Chambers
Followup-To: alt.revisionism
Organization: The Nizkor Project -
Keywords: Yad Vashem,treblinka,sobibor,belzec

Archive/File: orgs/israeli/yad-vashem/yvs16.09
Last-modified: 1993/03/29
XRef: yad_vashem index

                       YAD VASHEM STUDIES
                     Edited by Aharon Weiss

                          YAD VASHEM
                        JERUSALEM 1984

                    "Operation Reinhard": 
       Extermination Camps of Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka

                         Yitzhak Arad 

             The Construction of Larger Gas Chambers 

   The first period of operation in Belzec and Sobibor lasted about
   three months, in Treblinka five weeks.  After this initial phase,
   those holding key positions in Operation Reinhard decided to
   introduce "improvements" into the camps so as to increase their
   extermination capacity.  This decision was brought on by Himmler's
   order of July 19,1942 that all the Jews in the General Government,
   with a few exceptions, were to be eradicated by the end of that year.

   The main problem was finding a way to speed up the extermination
   procedure, i.e., increasing the absorption capacity of the gas

   Belzec was the first camp in which large gas chambers were built.
   The old wooden structure containing the three gas chambers was
   demolished, and on the same spot a larger, strong building was
   erected, which was 24 m.  Iong and 10 m.  wide.  It contained six gas
   chambers.  Statements differ as to their size; they fluctuate between
   4 x 4 m.  and 4 x 8 m.  The new gas chambers were completed in mid
   July.  (StA Munich 1, AZ: 22 Js 68/61, pp.  2602, 2613.)

   Rudolf Reder was the only one to have survived the Belzec
   extermination camp.  He described the new gas chambers: 

      The building was low, long, and broad.  It was built of grey
      concrete and had a flat roof made of roofing felt, with a net over
      it which was covered with branches.  Three steps without bar
      isters led into the building.  They were ca.  1 m.  wide.  In
      front of the building stood a large flowerpot with colorful
      flowers and a clearly written placard: "Bath- and inhalation
      Rooms.  " The steps led into a dark, empty corridor which was very
      long, but only 1.5 m.  wide.  To the left and right of it were the
      doors to the gas chambers.  They were wooden doors, 1 m.  wide...
      The corridor ant the chambers were lower than normal rooms, no
      higher than 2 m.  In the opposite wall of every chamber was a
      removable door through which the bodies of the gassed were thrown
      out.  Outside the building was a 2 x 2 m.  shed which housed the
      gas machine.  The chambers were 1.5 m.  above the ground...
      (Rudolf Reder, Berzcc, Cracow, 1946, pp.  42 ff.)

   These new gas chambers were able to take in 1,500 persons at one and
   the same time, i.e., a transport of about 15 freight cars.  (Verdict
   of LG Munich 1, AZ: 110 Ks 3/64, p10.)

   After he had completed the rebuilding of the Belzec gas chambers,
   Christian Wirth was appointed inspector of all three extermination
   camps.  He was replaced in Belzec by SS-Hauptsturmfu"hrer Gottlieb
   Hering.  Wirth's new headquarters was now in Lublin.

   The most urgent need for an increase in the absorption capacity was
   felt in Treblinka already in the first months of operation, because
   the small gas chambers there constantly led to chaos in the
   extermination process.  Newly appointed Commandant Stangl therefore
   ordered the construction of a new building next to the old one.  At
   the same time, the old gas chambers continued to function.  Within
   the framework of this reorganization, he also put an end to the
   chaotic conditions that had prevailed when the deportees arrived, and
   he introduced soothing means of deception.

   Wirth, in his role as Inspector of the Extermination Camps, sent
   SS-Unterscharfu"hrer Erwin Lambert and Scharfu"hrer Lorenz
   Hackenholt, who was responsible for the gas chambers in Belzec, to
   Treblinka to assist in the construction of the new gas chambers.

   The new building comprised 10 gas chambers.  In place of the three
   old ones which together measured 48 sq.m., the area now covered was
   320 sq.m.  The new rooms were 2 m.  high, i.e., ca.  60 cm.  lower
   than the old ones.  A low ceiling reduced the volume of the room and
   hence also the amount of gas needed for killing the victims.  In
   addition, it shortened the asphyxiation time.

   The new building was rectangular.  A dark curtain from a synagogue
   hung at the entrance to the passage.  It had written on it in Hebrew:
   "This is the gate, through which the righteous may enter."

   The pediment above the entrance door bore a Shield of David.  Five
   steps led up to it, both sides of which were decorated with pot
   plants.  The new building, with its idyllic flight of stairs, plants
   and curtain, stood at the end of the "tube.  " The victims who had
   been chased through the "tube," ran up the stairs to the entrance and
   into the passage.  The engine producing the gas was located at the
   end of the building, near the old gas chambers.

   In order to speed up the construction, a group of Jewish masons was
   brought from Warsaw.  They had been selected from a transport
   intended for the beginning of September 1942.  A total of 40 Jewish
   prisoners worked on the gas chambers.  Jankiel Wiernik described
   their feelings: The construction of the new building took five weeks.
   To us it seemed like eternity.  The work continued from sunrise to
   sunset, accompanied by lashes from whips and blows from rifle butts.
   Woronikow, one of the guards, beat and ill-treated us mercilessly.
   Every day several workers were murdered.  The extent of our physical
   fatigue was beyond human imagination, hut our mental agony was still
   greater.  New transports arrived daily; the deportees were ordered to
   undress, then they were taken to the three old gas chambers.  They
   were led past the building site.  Several of us recognized our
   children, wives or relatives among the victims.  If, in his agony,
   someone ran to his family, he was shot on the spot.  Thus we built the
   death chambers for ourselves and for our brothers!  (Jankiel Wiernik,
   'Rok w Treblmce', Warsaw, l944.)

   The new gas chambers were able to accommodate 4,000 persons at a
   time, the old ones only 600.

   Sobibor was the last camp to be provided with larger gas chambers.
   This construction program was carried out in September 1942 under the
   supervision of SS-Unterscharfu'hrer Erwin Lambert, who had erected
   the new gas chambers in Treblinka, and SS-Scharfu"hrer Lorenz
   Hackenholt, who was in charge of the gas chambers in Belzec.  They
   had both been posted to Sobibor by Christian Wirth.

   The new building had six gas chambers, three rooms on each side.  Its
   layout was similar to that in Belzec and Treblinka, where the
   entrances to the gas chambers branched off from a central passage.
   The new rooms here were not larger than the old ones, i.e., 4 x 4 m.,
   but the extermination capacity was increased to 1,200-1,300 persons.

   Another important technical change in Sobibor was a narrow-gauge
   mine-track which ran from the railroad platform to the mass graves in
   Camp III.  It was to replace the trolleys pulled by prisoners or
   horses, which had transported the dead, the sick, and the invalids
   from the train to the ditches.  According to Oberscharfu"hrer Hubert
   Gomerski, who was responsible for Camp III, the narrow-gauge track
   was about 300 400 m.  long.  It had 5 or 6 wagons and a small diesel
   locomotive.  (StA Dortmund AZ:45 Js 27/61 

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